Then I use the middle tool along the groove to mark where the stitches go.
Then finally I use the awl to create each hole.
Note why I cut the holes through the top of the holdfast. It's because this thread will end up under the heel and not visible from the outside. I'm just sewing around the heel for now.
The small piece of broken glass near the top of the pic is used to remove the top layer of grain from the leather. This prevents squeaks which happen when two pieces of top grain leather slide across each other.
The hammer I'm using here has indents in it's face which helps when hitting in these tiny nails.
I use brass nails since these are inside the shoe and won't be corroded by sweat or any water that might get in.